Human Respiratory System

Human Respiratory System

These tools include the respiratory function of air containing oxygen and remove the air containing carbon dioxide and water vapor. Purpose of the breathing process is to obtain energy. Breathing events occur on the release of energy.Human Respiratory System consists of:

respiratory sistem picture

Nasal cavity

On the surface of the nasal cavity there are tiny hairs and mucous membranes that function to filter the incoming air into the nasal cavity.

The base of the throat

Base of the throat compiled by some of the cartilage that forms the Adam’s apple. Base of the throat can be closed by the valve base of the throat (epiglottis). At the time of swallowing the food, the valve is closed the base of the throat and breathing at the time of valve opening. At the base of the throat there is a sound film that will vibrate when air from the lungs, for example when we talk.


Windpipe (trachea) located next to the front of the esophagus. In the chest cavity, trachea branched into two bronchus (bronchus). In the lung, bronchus branch out again into a tiny channel called the bronchioles. Bronchioles end in the form of small bubbles, called bubble of the lungs (alveoli).


The lungs are located inside the chest cavity. Chest and abdominal cavity bounded by siuatu septum called the diaphragm. The lungs are two pieces of the right lung and left lung. Right lung consists of three gelambir (lobe) is gelambir top, middle and gelambir gelambir below. While the left lung is composed of two gelambir gelambir gelambir top and bottom. The lungs are covered by a lining of the lungs (pleura).

Alveoli in the lungs are huge numbers, approximately 300 million alveoli. Entire alveolar surface area is estimated to 100 times greater than the surface of the body. Dikekelingi alveolar capillary blood vessels.

Gas exchange in the alveoli

Oxygen required for oxidation is taken from the air we breathe when we breathe. At the time of breathable air to enter through the respiratory tract and akhirnyan into the alveoli. The oxygen contained in the alveoli diffuses through the cell walls of the alveoli. Finally get into the blood vessels and that there is bound to hemoglobin in the blood becomes oxyhemoglobin. Subsequently circulated by the blood throughout the body.

Oxygen is released into the body cells so that the oxyhemoglobin becomes hemoglobin again. Carbon dioxide produced from respiration are transported by the blood through the blood vessels eventually came to the alveoli of the alveolar carbon dioxide is expelled through the respiratory tract at the time we exhale.

Thus in the alveolar gas exchange of oxygen occurs in and karnbondioksida out.

Breathing Process

Breathing involves two processes that incorporate breathing or breathing air and exhaling or breathing out the air. Inhale and exhale is called inspiration is called expiration.

At the time you inhale, the diaphragm muscle to contract. Original position of the diaphragm is now a straight upward curve so that the chest cavity to expand. This is called abdominal breathing. Simultaneously with the contraction of the diaphragm muscle, the rib muscles also contract so that the chest cavity expands. It is called chest breathing. Due to the expansion of the chest cavity, the pressure in the chest cavity is reduced, so that the outside air from entering through the nose then finally air through the airways into the lungs, so the lungs inflate.

Exhalation occur  because the diaphragm muscle and the muscles of the ribs and also assisted with berkontraksinya abdominal muscles. Diaphragm to be curved upward, ribs down to the bottom and moving inward, resulting in smaller chest cavity so that the pressure in the chest rise. With increasing pressure in the chest cavity, the air from the lungs out through the respiratory tract.

Lung capacity

Air in and out of the lungs at the time of the so-called air-breathing breathing (tidal air). Volume of air breathing in adults approximately 500 nl. After we do the usual inspiration, we can still breathe deeply. Air can enter after a normal inspiration is called complementary air, the volume is approximately 1500 ml. After we do the ordinary expiration, we can still exhale a vengeance. Air that can be issued after the expiration of air called supplementary, approximately 1500 ml volume. Although we exhale from your lungs with a vengeance in the lung was still there the air is called residual air. Residual air volume of approximately 1500 ml. The number of respiratory air volume, air complementary and supplementary air called lung vital capacity.

This is video about human respiratory system:

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