Water Pollution on Living Things

Influence of  Water Pollution on living Things

Complied By: Edy Hartono 

A.    Objectives

Student are able to know the pollutans on living things

  1. Student are able to identify the characteristic of water contamined b the indicator of the water pollutan  (colour, smell, temperature, pH, and condition of water pollutan).
  2. Student  are able to know one way of separation of mixtures.

B.     Background

With increasing human population, it could lead to land in a particular region becomes narrow. Lands that had been empty, now built many houses, factories, and many other buildings. Although indirectly, but this is clearly a negative impact on life. Waste plant is supposed to do a deposition or filtration before being discharged into the river, now has been ignored by the manufacturer. Without being aware of things like disposal of household waste such as detergents, to someone else’s body water will cause damage to the water. Water is a very important component for human life. Humans will die faster from lack of water rather than food shortage. In the human body itself is composed mostly of water. Adult body, approximately 55-65% body weight consists of water. As for the children about 65% and about 80% for infants. Human need for water is very complex, among others, for drinking, bathing, washing and so on. According to the calculation of the WHO, in developing countries like Indonesia each person needs 30-60 liters of water per day. Among the usability-usability of the water is very important is the need to drink. Therefore, for purposes of drinking, water must have special requirements so that water does not cause disease to humans. So that drinking water does not cause the disease it sought to meet the water requirements of health. The water must meet the requirements of a healthy physical, bacteriological, and chemical in accordance with the provisions of health. The water that we use must be standardized 3B is not colorless, odorless and nontoxic. But the more we see the water that was murky and often mingled with the smell of objects such as plastic waste, organic waste, cans and other. Sights like this are often encountered in the flow of rivers, ditches and ponds. Water is so-called dirty water or polluted water. Polluted water contains harmful substances that can cause harm and hurt us when in intake. One way of water treatment to water that we consume, including healthy water is by filtration. Filtration is a separation surgery mixture of solids and liquids from the raw water by passing the feed (solids + liquid) through a filter medium or a porous medium such as sand, anthracite, garnet.

C.    Basic Theory

Pollution, according to the Population Minister of Environment Decree No. 02/MENKLH/1988 “Pollution is entered or the inclusion of living things, matter, energy, and / or other components into the water / air, and / or changing the order of (composition) of water / air by human activities and natural processes, so the quality of the water / air becomes less or no longer able to function in accordance with the destining “. Otherwise contaminated water if there are disturbances to water quality so water cannot be in use for the purpose intended uses. Contaminated water is water has entered the living creatures (micro organism), substances or energy as a result of human activity so that water quality was down to a certain level of water caused not functioning as intended. Ways Water is polluted:

1. Industry

There are three main ways that industries contribute to water pollution. They pollute by disposing of waste directly into waterways, emitting toxic gases that cause acid rain and changing the temperature of water with their disposals into waterways. Direct disposal of waste into natural waterways causes waste to build up within the water. A pungent odor is the result. Additionally, this waste decreases the amount of oxygen in water, causing the death of aquatic animals or other organisms. The emission of toxic fumes into the air causes acid rain. When the acid rain falls, it contaminates local natural waterways including streams, rivers and lakes. This causes the death of many aquatic animals. Other animals drinking the water may become ill and die, too. Thermal pollution occurs when water used to cool hot machinery is released into waterways and the temperature of the water is drastically increased. This temperature change may cause aquatic life to die and numbers to be reduced. Additionally, such a temperature increase decreases the amount of oxygen in water, causing more of a chance of death to organisms.

2. Agriculture

It’s common for farmers to use fertilizers and other chemicals on their crops to help them grow. However, these chemicals and nutrients added to the soil can soak into the underground water supplies. Additionally, when it rains, these chemicals join the run-off water and flow into streams, rivers and lakes, thus polluting them. Even just the sediments of dirt, without any chemicals, are pollutants in the fact that they cause the waterways to become cloudy and muddy

3. Homes

Households are a leading cause of water pollution by the trash they create. Even if taken to landfills, often this trash finds its way to natural waterways. Human waste, disposed of typically by sewers, pollute water. Any time a septic system is not installed properly or bursts beneath the ground, the underground water supply may be polluted. Oils and anti-freeze leaked from vehicles pollute water. The best solution for water pollution is prevention. While pollution that has already occurred is a current threat to all life on Earth, attempts to clean it up may cause even more harm. Chemicals used to treat or clean up oil spills may further contaminate water supplies. Adjustments in temperature to counteract heat or cooling pollution may not achieve proper balance, leading to more loss of aquatic life. Preventing water pollution does more for the environment by halting the level of pollutants where they are. This gives the environment needed time to begin to correct itself, and time for scientists to determine the best way to combat existing problems. Good water is water that is not excessively contaminated by chemicals or minerals, especially by or mineral substance that are harmful to health. As for some of indicators that have been polluted river water as follows.

  1. The change in water temperature. Hen hot water directly discharged in to the environment will disrupt the lives aquatic animals and other micro organisms.
  2. The change of pH or hydrogen ion concentration. Normal water are eligible for life has a pH ranging between 6,5 to 7,5.
  3. The change color, smell, and taste of water. Water under normal circumstances and generally will not clean the color, so look clear and crisp, but it did not apply absolutely, sometimes even poisonous substances contained in industrial waste that does not cause discoloration of water. Odor to the water environment can be used absolutely as one sign of pollution. If water has sense there is a material increase in the water and change the hydrogen ion concentration and pH of the water.
  4. The onset of precipitation, colloidal, dissolved materials. Solid waste which, before reaching the bottom of the river will float in the water with colloidal, there by blocking the entry of sunlight into the water layer. Though sunlight is needed by organisms to perform photosynthesis.
  5. Presence of microorganisms. Microorganisms are very instrumental in the process of degradation of waste material from domestic of industrial waste. When the waste material that must be degraded quite a lot, then the microorganism will participate breeding. On the proliferation of these microorganisms is also possible that pathogenic microbes multiply participate anyway.
  6. The increased radioactivity of the water environment. Radioactive substances from a variety of activities can cause a wide range of biological damage if not handled properly, either direct effects of delayed effect.

There are two types of pollution sources: Contamination can be sure of its source such as industrial waste, Pollution that cannot be sure the source is enter the waters with rain water and surface water runoff. Pollution load on water bodies is the amount of materials generated from these two sources (Husin, 1991). One of the changes that occur due to dumping of waste into water bodies can cause reduced levels of dissolved oxygen. Oxygen is essential for respiratory metabolism is the main component for fish and other organism. Organic compounds in the waters will be broken down by decay organisms. The occurrence of this process is in desperate need of oxygen dissolved in these waters. In addition, the presence of toxic compounds contained in waste is also affect to metabolism processes in the body of the fish, gut tissue damage and renal function (Duffus, 1980). These toxic compounds also affect other body organs blood. Addition of toxic compounds and heavy metals can inhibit the metabolism of serum proteins. Contamination of materials that go into the water can be grouped for organic waste, heavy metals and oils .Each group was highly influential on aquatic organisms. Heavy metal pollutants are the most. Water sources need to pay attention to aspects of quality control. Water pollution control efforts require information and input on the level of pollution in various water sources. There are three ways to evaluate the level of water pollution that is the way water quality standard criteria, how to do biological test how the index of water quality or pollution (Mark, 1981).

Filtration is a separation surgery mixture of solids (colloidal solid) and liquid (suspended solid), flock particles or clumps that can not be precipitated from raw water by passing the feed (solids liquid) through a filter medium or a porous medium such as sand, anthracite, garnet to obtain clear water. The main thing is to drain the fluid filtration through porous media. Filtration can occur because of the thrust, for example: gravity, pressure and centrifugal force. In some processes to help block the porous filter media (cake) to hold the solid particles in suspension so that successive layers are formed on the beam as a filtrate that passes through the beam and the media.

The main function of the filtration unit is to filter out fine flock that is not deposited on the sedimentation unit. For other functions that reduce the amount of bacteria to about 98-99% of water is produced. Raw water filtration process can be done without preceded by coagulation, flocculation, and sedimentation when raw water turbidity is less than 10 NTU. The process also drain water filtration or sedimentation results of raw water through the sand media. Processes that occur during filtration are sieving (straining), flocculation between grains, between grains of sediment, and biological processes. Once the filter is used for a while, the filter will have a blockage. For that need cleaning, which can be done by washing with air and washing with water (washing the surface with the spraying and washing the filter with a backwash).

Filter Gravity (Gravity Filter) is the oldest type and simple. These filters are composed of tanks with holes in the bottom and filled with porous sands where the laminar fluid flow. These filters are used to process large quantities of fluid and contains very little solids. For example: in water purification. The tank is usually made of wood,bata atau logam tetapi untuk pengolahan air biasa digunakan beton. Saluran dibagian bawah cavities leads to the filtrate, the channel was equipped with a door or faucet to allow backwashing of the sand bottom to remove accumulated solids. The bottom of the hole is closed by a rock or gravel as high as 1 ft or more to hold the sand. Sand is commonly used in water treatment as a filter medium is sand, quartz sand in the form of a uniform. There are simple filtration equipment and materials:

  1. Charcoal, serves to absorb the smell in the water.
  2. Fibers, serves to kill bacteria.
  3. Sand, are useful in filtering dirty water that escapes.
  4. Gravel, can withstand dust and soil found in dirty water, but have not been able to kill bacteria.
  5. Buckets and tanks, used to hold and filter water.
  6. Alum, is used to purify water.

D.    Tools and Materials

  1. 600 ml pf contamined water (river water, sewage water, waste water washing).
  2. Drinking water.
  3. Gravel.
  4. Sand.
  5. Coir from coconut.
  6. Charcoal
  7. Cotton
  8. Some fishs
  9. Plastic cups
  10. Plastic bottle
  11. 3 Beaker glass
  12. ph stick
  13. Thermometer
  14. Stopwacth

E.     Procedures

  1. Observing each of the contamined water sample (colour, smell, temperature, and pH).
  2. Taking 250 ml sample pf sample of polluted water, annd then separating it(series of equipment for separate the mixtures, according to the tools and materials).
  3. Preparing 3 beaker glass, filling each with pure water, waste water, and filtered water.
  4. Entering each beaker glass, 2 fish.
  5. Observing changed that occur in suspectible fish in a certain time (2 minutes once every 20 minutes).

F.     Experiment Result


Contamined water observation

   Kind of Water

Parameter

River Water Sewage Water Waste Water Washing
pH 6 6 6
Colour Clear-yellowish Brown-cloudy Gray, cloudy
Smell fishy. Strong smell Smell of soap
Temperature 30 31 31
Condtion Contaminated Waste Plant Household Waste Contaminated Contaminated chemicals (detergent) and dirt on the clothes.

Waste water washing

Time Drinkin Water Filted Water Waste water
0” actively moving actively moving Are actively moving, then sank a few moments
3” actively moving Still actively engaged Jumps
4” actively moving
  • occasional jumping, but not as active as before
Dying, the floating head
6” actively moving Started dying but still there are some activities. Dead, floating
7” actively moving Position the fish upside down, drowning.
8” actively moving Occasional leap
9” actively moving Body upside down, shut up, mouth still moving
10” The more active because of the cramped space There was no movement, dies

G.    Explanation

Water is a very important component for human life. Humans will be more likely to die from lack of water rather than food shortages. In the human body itself is composed mostly of water. Adult body, approximately 55-65% body weight consists of water.Whereas for children about 65% and for infants of about 80%. Human needs for water are very complex, among others, for drinking, bathing, washing and so on. According to WHO calculations, in developing countries like Indonesia each person needs 30-60 liters of water per day. Among the uses of the water utility, which is very important is the need to drink. Therefore, for drinking, water must have special requirements so that water does not cause disease to humans. So that water does not cause disease then the water is arranged to meet health requirements. Healthy water must meet the physical, bacteriological, and chemical in accordance with the provisions of health.Water we use must be standardized 3B is a colorless, odorless and nontoxic. But the more we see the colored water is cloudy and smells often mixed with objects such as plastic waste, waste oruk ganik, cans and sebagainnya.

To overcome this serious needs to be done any act, one way by filtration or filtration.Filtration is a mixture of solids separation operation (colloidal solid) and liquid (suspended solid), flock or clumps of particles that can not be precipitated from raw water by passing the feed (solids + liquid) through a filter medium or a porous medium such as sand, anthracite, garnet to obtain clear water, by draining the fluid is dilkukan through porous media. Filtration may occur because of the thrust, for example: gravity, pressure and centrifugal force. In some processes to help block the porous filter media (cake) to hold the solid particles in suspension, forming successive layers on the beam as a filtrate that passes through the beam and the media. The main function of the filtration unit is a sift fine flock that is not deposited on the sedimentation unit. Other functions to reduce the number of bacteria to about 98-99% in the produced water. Raw water filtration process can be done without preceded by coagulation, flocculation, and sedimentation.

Filtration experiment this time, held on 20 October 2011 held at the Laboratory Science 2 Faculty UNY. After conducting experiments in expected students to know the pollutants on living things, students can identify the characteristics of the water is contaminated by water pollutant indicators (color, odor, temperature, pH, and water conditions), except that the students can figure out a way of separating mixtures. The tools and materials used were 600 ml of water is contaminated (water, waste water, waste water washing), fibers, water, gravel, sand, coir from coconut, coal, cotton, some small fish, plastic cups, bottles plastic, glass Beaker 3, ph stick, thermometer, stopwacth. As for the functions of the above objects are Charcoal, serves to absorb the smell in the water. Fibers, used to kill bacteria. Sand, are useful in filtering out the dirty water away. Gravel, it can withstand dust and soil found in dirty water, but can not kill the bacteria. Buckets and tanks, used to hold and filter water. Cotton, useful for filtering very fine dirt. Fish used as a testing tool itu.Adapun extent of water pollution is the first working procedure is the first one is watching any contaminated water samples (color, odor, temperature, and pH). The second is to take samples of 250 ml of sample contamination, and then separate them (series equipment for separating mixtures, according to the tools and materials). Then, prepare 3 cups of the beaker, fill each one with pure water, wastewater, and water filtered. Further into each glass, two fish, but the experiments are praktikan do is wear a fish only. The next step is to observe changes that occur in fish suspectible within a certain time (2 minutes once every 20 minutes).

In the first experiment is mengamti contaminated water. In the river water has a pH of 6, the clear-yellowish color, smells fishy, and has a temperature of 30, and a lot of river water polluted by industrial waste. This is because most of the industry is not operating the WWTP (wastewater treatment) is optimal, the majority of industries that discharge their waste directly into rivers because WWTP capacity is not in accordance with a production capacity so that the waste does not go through the WWTP. Moreover, the location of waste disposal piping lines are difficult to reach staff. Parameters measured in river water quality monitoring include biological oxygen demand (BOD / biological oxygen demand), chemical oxygen demand (COD / chemical oxygen demand) and dissolved oxygen (DO / Dissolved Oxygen). In addition, the levels of hazardous and toxic chemicals.

On sewage having a pH of 6, murky brown, foul-smelling, and has a temperature of 31, and a lot of river water polluted by household waste. Household waste is waste that comes from the kitchen, bathroom, laundry, a former industrial waste and domestic sewage. Waste is waste / used in the form of liquid, gaseous and solid. In waste water are difficult to remove chemicals and dangerous. These chemicals can give life to the disease-causing germs diantantaranya dysentery, typhoid, cholera and so on.Wastewater must be treated so as not to pollute and do not endanger the health of the environment.

In the former laundry water has a pH of 6, gray cloudy, smells of soap, and has a temperature of 31, and a lot of river water contaminated by chemicals or detergents.Detergent is a (or a combination of several) compounds, which facilitates the cleaning process (cleaning). The term detergent is now used to distinguish between other types of soap with a surfactant. Excess detergent is able to more effectively clean the dirt even in water that contains minerals and is more easily made. The degree of acidity / pH detergents are very alkaline, ie 9.5 to 12. The most obvious effect is caused by the waste of household detergents are eutrophication (rapid growth of algae and water hyacinth). Detergent wastes discharged into ponds or marshes will trigger the explosive growth of algae and water hyacinth that are water could not be penetrated by sunlight, oxygen content is reduced drastically, the life of degraded water biota, and nutrients increased very rapidly. If this is not addressed, ecosystems will be disrupted and cause harm man himself, as an example only neighborhood sewer disposal channels. Indirectly must dispose of household waste through the sewers deterjennya this, and let’s see, at the end of the sewer line so much water hyacinth living with a very large population density.

The second step is to filter the water used to wash the filtration device. Variables used in this experiment is the control variable is the type of fish, and the size of the beaker, the independent variable is the type of water used, as well as the dependent variable is the change in fish behavior. Screening done as much as one-time, from the first screening and soapy water are still not screened each taken a glass beaker. Then take as much as one glass of pure water beaker. For convenience in the third watch glass should be the same size. Then in each beaker glass in place of small fish. On fish entered in the glass beaker containing water fish from the first minute until the ninth minute active, and in the tenth minute of this fish are actively moving because it’s so narrow that the fish is deprived of oxygen, however the fish are still healthy. Fish are placed in soapy water that has been filtered once in the early minutes of 0 to 3 minutes of active fish. In the fourth minute jumping up occasionally but not as active as before.In the sixth minute of the fish started dying but there are still some activity (upside down) may be due to dizziness. In the next minute the fish upside down and submerged positions. In the next minute seskali fish undergo a jump. In the minutes keesembilan fish body upside down, shut up and his mouth was still moving. In the tenth minute the fish is no longer moving (dead). On fish entered the water used in washing, in the very early minutes of inactivity, then tenggela a while. In the third minute of the fish jumping up and down. In the next minutes the fish started floating sekaratdan the head. In the sixth minute the fish was already dead and floating.

Fish are exposed to water that has not been screened detergent die faster when compared with filtered water. Hali is the case karen aira difference in the amount of detergent. Is the main ingredient of detergent surfactants. At this detergent, type of cargo carried is an anionic surfactant. Cationic surfactant is sometimes added as a bactericide (bacteria-killing). Function of anionic surfactant is a wetting agent that will infiltrate into the bonding between filth and fiber cloth. This will make the dirt roll, over time becomes large, then off to the washing water in the form of granules. In order for this grain does not break out again and stuck to the fabric, should be added other types of surfactants that will wrap the grain and make it repel water, so that the float position.This is to make it easy with the washing water is wasted. Compounds, such as the detergent is anti redeposisi. Redeposisi intended to bind the dirt that had come out of clothes so as not to re-attach. Stools were bound by the material called Carboxy methyl cellulose sodium (SCMC). SCMC is a way to absorb dirt work to create a barrier that prevents ion redeposisi. Wrapped in a negative ion impurities or cation as well as negatively charged layers of clothing. Due to the two poles of the same, it happens to repel each other, so the dirt will dissolve in water when rinsing or drying. In addition, the detergent is also dependent on the filler. These fillers serve to neutralize water hardness or soften water, prevent the attachment again washed the dirt on the material and prevent formation of clots in the dishwater. In the long term, drinking water potentially contaminated waste detergent as one cause of cancer (carcinogenic).

The decomposition of residual detergent will produce benzene when reacted with chlorine to form chlorobenzene compounds are very dangerous. Contact benzene and chlorine are very likely to occur in drinking water treatment, considering the use of chlorine (which it contains chlorine) as a germ killer on the chlorination process. In the experiment can be analyzed that the detergent was having a devastating effect on our living environments. Both the terrestrial environment in which we live, then the aquatic environment, including organisms living in it, or even the environment to human health without us knowing the truth began to slowly invade our health.

H.    Conclusion

Pollution in living things basically is a change in the nature of physics, chemistry, and biology that are not desired on the air, soil and water.  Pollution is entered or the inclusion of living things, matter, energy, and other components into the water/ air, and/ or changing the order of (composition) of water/ air by human activities and natural processes, so the quality of the water / air becomes less or not can function again in accordance with the destining . Thus, the contamination does not occur only in water, but includes other abiotic components of the earth. The characteristic of water contaminated by the indicators of the water pollution (color, smell, temperature, and pH, condition of water pollution) is

   Kind of Water

Parameter

River Water Sewage Water Waste Water Washing
pH 6 6 6
Colour Clear-yellowish Brown-cloudy Gray, cloudy
Smell fishy. Strong smell Smell of soap
Temperature 30 31 31
Condtion Contaminated Waste Plant Household Waste Contaminated Contaminated chemicals (detergent) and dirt on the clothes.

 One way of separation of mixtures is using filtration method. Filtration is a way of separating mixtures based on particle size by passing a mixture on a filter so that smaller particles pass through the sieveand the large particles retained in the sieve. Substances or materials can be separated from the mixture because the mixture has different properties, that’s why the basic of underlying of the mixture separation.

 I.       References

Arifiani, Nur Fajri, Mochtar Hadiwidodo. 2007. Jurnal Presipitasi Vol.3 No. 2. ISSN: Jakarta accesed on Wednesday, October 22nd, 2011 from http://bonitawenas..com

Chahaya, Indra. 2003. Ikan Sebagai Alat Monitor Pencemaran. accesed on monday, October 24nd, 2011from http://library.usu.ac.id

Duffus, H. J. 1980. Environment Toxicologi. Department of Brewing and Biological Science. Hariot-Watt. University Edinbueg.

Husin, Y. dan Eman, K. 1991. Metoda Teknik Analisis Kwalitas Air. Bogor: Penelitian Lingkungan Hidup, Lembaga Penelitian, IPB.

Totok, Sutrisno Ir. C., dkk. Teknologi Penyediaan Air Bersih. Bogor: IPB.

World Health Organization (WHO). Guidelines for drinking-water Quality. accesed on Sunday, October 23nd from http://www.lenntech.com

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