Simulation Of Vulcano Eruption

LABWORK REPORT OF SCIENCE 1
SIMULATION OF VULCANO ERUPTION
Complied By:
Edy Hartono (10315244005)

A. GOAL

  • Students are able to observe how a model of vulcano can erupt process which cause by presure.
  • Students are able to observe the charateristic of chemical reaction in a model of vulcano.
  • Students are able to observe explain process of a vulcano eruption for the surounding area.
  • Students are able to observe explain process of a vulcano that actualy.

B. Backround

Earth’s core contains is called hot liquid magma as a result of physical and chemical reactions that formed millions ago, even some scientists classify the magma chamber work (the core of the earth) as an atomic of the reactor. The results of chemical and physical reactions form of gases and liquids is a very hot lava stored in the deepest layers of the earth. Reaction results in the form of gas and liquid magma lava has a certain pressure at a time pressure that can not be held then volcanic eruptions occur. Pressure caused by the gas and liquid from chemical and physical reactions, but it also caused a layer of pressure that moves the earth itself. Geologi expert is aware of movement of Earth’s plates are measured from the movement of a year by comparing the distance between the layers that have been measured in the previous year with the current year. The experts agree the average movement of the plates is an average of 10 cm / year. Plate movement itself caused differences in specific gravity of the plate to form a subduction zone and gives rise to earthquakes. The theory of mountain formation says that the mountain in a million years ago is an unstable region on one side and on the other side is congested areas. Pressure due to movement on the one hand stuck on the other side causes the soil to be looming up and after it gave birth to the air cavities. Another theory states the existence pressure from inside the earth are very strong and the pressure will be issued by selecting the unstable region, so that this pressure resulted in the movement of soil into towering. After young mountains are formed, then the eruption after eruption out of the volcano and lava issued some time later will be cold in the ground millions of years into a dense and tends to be a rock mountain. This is what encourages practician to prove that a strong pressure to spew lava that so many of the volcano.

C. Basic Theory

Volcano or volcanoes in general is a term that can be defined as a system of hot fluid channel (in the form of molten rock or lava) that extends from a depth of about 10 km below the surface of the earth to the earth’s surface, including the accumulation of sediment material issued on when erupted. Although it is rather difficult to define what a volcano or volcanoes, but in general these terms can be defined as a system of hot fluid channel (in the form of molten rock or lava) that extends from a depth of about 10 km below the surface of the earth to the surface of the earth , including the results of sediment accumulation of material issued at the time he erupted. Furthermore, the term volcano is also used to name the phenomenon of ice formation Volcanoes or ice and mud volcanoes or volcanic mud Volcanoes. Volcanoes are found worldwide, but the location of the most recognizable volcanoes are volcanoes that are along the arc of the Pacific Ring of Fire (Pacific Ring of Fire). Arc of the Pacific Ring of Fire is the shifting line between two tectonic plates. Volcanoes are found in several forms throughout their lifetime. Active volcanoes may be swapped into the active half, to be outages, before becoming inactive or dead. However volcanoes capable of being went out in time 610 years before the exchange becomes active before. Thus, it is Difficult to determine the actual state of the volcano’s something, whether a volcano was in a state of failure or died. If the volcano erupts, magma is contained in the room of magma under the volcano erupted out as lava or lava.

In physics, pressure is defined as force per unit area, where the direction of the force perpendicular to the surface area. Mathematically, the pressure can be expressed by the following equation: P = F / A ; P = pressure, F = force and A = surface area. Unit of force (F) is the Newton (N), unit area is square meters (m2). Because pressure is force per unit area then the unit of pressure is N/m2. Another name of N/m2 is the pascal (Pa). When we discuss Fluid, pressure becomes very important concept. When the fluid is in a quiet, fluid exerts a force that is perpendicular to the surface of contact. For example we review the water in the glass; every part of the water exerts a force with a direction perpendicular to the glass wall. so every part of the water exerts a force perpendicular to each unit area of the container they occupy, in this glass. Similarly, water in the tub or pool water. This is one of the important properties of the fluid per unit alias static fluid is stationary. This broad style known as pressure. When the fluid exerts a force acts on the surface, where the direction of the force is not perpendicular, then the surface will give the reaction force direction is not perpendicular. This will cause the fluid to flow. But the fact still remains fluid. So in conclusion, in fluids at rest, the direction of force is always perpendicular to the surface of the container they occupy. Another important property of fluids at rest is always fluid pressure in all directions. To better understand this explanation, please input an object that can drift into a glass or container (bucket et al) who sided water. If the water is very calm, then you enter the object did not move because the entire surface of the object of the same working pressure. If water pressure is not as large then there will be a total force, which will cause a moving object (remember Newton’s second law).
Acetic acid, ethanoic acid or vinegar is a chemical compound of organic acids known as the taste and aroma acids in the diet. Acetic acid has the empirical formula C2H4O2. This formula is often written in the form 〖CH〗_3-COOH. Pure acetic acid (glacial acetic acid is called) is a colorless hygroscopic liquid, and has a freezing point of 16.7 ° C. Acetic acid is one of the simplest carboxylic acid, the formic acid. Acetic acid solution in water is a weak acid, meaning that only partially dissociates into ions H + and CH3COO-. Acetic acid is a chemical reagent and industrial raw materials are important. Acetic acid is used in the production of polymers such as polyethylene, cellulose acetate, and polyvinyl acetate, as well as a variety of fibers and fabrics. In the food industry, acetic acid is used as an acidity regulator. In households, diluted acetic acid is also frequently used as a water softener. Within a year, the global thirst for acetic acid reached 6.5 million tons per year. 1.5 million per year is obtained from recycled, the rest is obtained from the petrochemical industry as well as from biological sources.

Baking soda is sodium bicarbonate and vinegar is a weak acid. Mixture of both these chemicals will form gaseous carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide produced by trying to get out of the bottle. With the liquid soap, it will form small bubbles. So that the eruption that occurred resembles an actual lava. Carbon dioxide gas generated by the model volcano is similar to processes that occur in the real volcanoes. The more carbon dioxide, the greater the pressure, the more lava, the greater the eruption. The following is the reaction between sodium bicarbonate and Acetic acid:

NaHCO3(s) + CH3COOH(aq) → CH3COONa(aq) + CO2(g) + H2O(l)

Volcano eruption is an event that occurs due to deposition of magma in the bowels of the earth is pushed out by high-pressure gas. Magma is the incandescent liquid contained in the layer of earth with a very high temperature, which is estimated at more than 1,000 ° C. Liquid magma coming out of the earth is called lava. The temperature of lava which issued could reach 700-1200 ° C. Volcanic eruptions that brought rock and ash can be sprayed as far as the radius of 18 km or more, while the lava could flood as far as 90 km radius. This is the content of the Earth, where the age of the Earth who has reached 4.5 billion years old. Earth is actually composed of a hot core of the Earth and its rocks and soil. Because covered by rocks and soil, then the surface is not hot. Then, heat from the core will be channeled to the soil and rocks, so that the inside of the Earth will be turbulent because of the heat. Heat generated by the core of the Earth will continue to burn part of stones and soil that protects the Earth’s surface. However, the coat that protects it would not be able to withstand the magma core of the Earth is too long. This resulted in deposition of magma from the Earth’s core is increased. This is what is called a strato volcano. If this magma is not strong enough to hold, it will be ejected out along the rocks and smoke from the volcano eruption. Magma erupted lava that will generate some where if on an object, will make a fire on the object that is passed. Lava ejected by the volcano can reach a considerable distance, which is about 40km. In the distance, moving lava was still in a fairly hot temperature. And if past the 40km distance, lava began to cool down gradually. Not to forget also the smoke produced. This smoke contains sulfur dioxide that can reach areas far enough. These substances can stimulate the occurrence of an acid rain in the area around the smoke. In addition, smoke can lead to the eruption of shortness of breath for living things.

Volcano type based shape

  1. Strato volcano : Like a cone with steep sides. This type of volcano is formed on a large eruption of lava flows, tefra, and pyroclastic flows. Major eruption occurs because magma is very viscous composition. Rhyolitic magma rich in silica distributed on the continental shelf areas, especially in subduction zones. At the time of formation of this volcano on the continental shelf in the area
  2. Shield Volcano: Type of volcano is the largest in the world. This type is formed from basalt lava flows and has a slope of the ramps. This volcano does not produce a large eruption due to magma issued a watery nature. With low viscosity basaltic magma is commonly appears in the middle of the ocean hotspots and divergent plate boundary region. This type of volcano is more often appear in the middle of the ocean.
  3. Cinder Cone Volcano: Is volcanic ash and small fragments of volcanic rocks spread around the mountain. Most of the mountains of this type form a bowl on top. Rarely are high in the upper 500 meters of land in the vicinity.
  4. Caldera Volcano: A collapse of the volcano area. A collapse was triggered by the emptying of the magma beneath the volcano, usually as a result of a huge volcanic eruption. This collapse can occur at the time of eruption or eruption gradually from a series of eruptions. The ruins of the magma will cover the path before, so the magma will seek a new path and fracture-fracture which usually leads to the circular edge of the ruins (Caldera) is. So there is a secondary volcanic vents around the caldera.

D. TOOLS AND MATERIAL

  • Clay/sand/soil
  • Hose
  • Injection
  • Tray
  • Acetic Acid (〖CH〗_3COOH)
  • Sodium Bicarbonat (〖NaHCO〗_3)
  • Red dye


E. PROCEDURES

  1. Make a model of vulcano in the tray and make a hole in center of imitation mountain as a creater.
  2. Put a hose under a clay.
  3. Pour a Acetic Acid into beaker glass and give red dye.
  4. Pour a sodium bikarbonat into crater of model a vulcano
  5. Suck a acetic acid with the injection.
  6. Push th injection with slowly and to be carefull.
  7. Observe it.

F. EXPERIMENT RESULT
Hose mounted from the bottom of the crater out past the bottom of the mountain, then connected with a shot that has been filled in red vinegar. The crater is filled with baking soda, and then shot in the press so that the injection of acid in vinegar will flow through the hose into the crater and then the explosion occurred due to acetic acid reacts with baking soda. The explosion is accompanied by froth.

G. Explanation

In the experiment simulating volcanic eruption is aimed to observe how the model of the eruption of the volcano caused by pressure, observation of the characteristic chemical reactions of the experimental model of this volcano, describes the effects of the eruption of Merapi in the surrounding area, as well as explain the eruption of Mount Merapi which actually. Model of the volcano made of clay shaped like a mountain. At the middle or center of the mountain, from top to bottom, made a hole as magma channels. Magma is modeled using a mixture of acetic acid (CH_3COOH) and baking soda (NaHCO_3). Acetic acid is inserted into an injection before the end of the former is connected with a hose. Previously, given vinegar red food coloring so that later in the simulation can be seen to resemble the color of red magma. This hose is connected to the line of the mountain through the bottom hole of the mountain. Baking soda placed on the (channel) of the mountain. Pressed until the next injection can be pushed through the channel so that the vinegar with baking soda can be met within the mountain. Finally, there was vomit lava is a mixture of baking soda and vinegar. Lava emerging from the mountain top (crater) and spread to the area around the mountain.Acetic acid out of the hose mixed with sodium bicarbonate has been sown in an artificial crater. Cukapun acid react and form bubbles. His reaction is as follows.

NaHCO_3 + CH_3COOH → CO_2 + CH_3COONa (gas)

Can see that at the time of acetic acid and sodium bicarbonate mixed (reacted), it will produce CO2 gas. The gas bubble then forms bubbles coming out of the water mixed with sodium bicarbonate vinegar. With presence of bubbles coming out of the crater, the volcano models seem more real. Volcanic eruption simulations emphasize aspects of physics that is causing pressure on the magma eruption or discharge to the surface of the earth. Volcanic eruption, magma caused by sediment in the bowels of the earth is pushed out by high-pressure gas. Heat generated by the core of the Earth will continue to burn the rocks and soil that protects the Earth’s surface. However, the coat that protects it would not be able to withstand the Earth’s magma core is too long. This resulted in the deposition of magma from the Earth’s core is increased. Of such eruptions of the volcano is formed.Eruptions of ash and rock that brought loud burst with radius as far as 18 km or more, being able to overwhelm the lava as far as 90 km radius. Magma containing gas in the magma is in the cabin under the pressure of heavy rocks that surround it. This pressure causes the magma erupts or a melt conduit (channel) on the rocks brittle or cracked. Magma moves out through these channels to the surface. When magma approaches the surface, the gas content in it regardless. Gas and magma together and form a hole blown a hole called the primary (central vent). Most of the magma and other volcanic material a hole is then sprayed out through the hole crater.

This is what is called a stratovolcano. If this magma is not strong enough to hold, it will be ejected out along the rocks and smoke from the volcano eruption. Magma erupted lava that will generate some where if on an object, will make a fire to objects that are skipped. Lava ejected by the volcano can reach a considerable distance, which is about 40km. In the distance, moving lava is still in a fairly hot temperature. And if the distance of 40km, lava began to cool gradually. This is called a lava lava. Similarly, do not miss the smoke produced. This smoke contains sulfur dioxide which can reach areas far enough. These substances can stimulate the occurrence of acid rain in the area around the smoke. In addition, fumes can lead to the eruption of shortness of breath for living things.

In terms of more emphasis on biological aspects of the effects caused by the volcanic eruption of the area around the mountain that disturb vegetation, fauna and water. The resulting lava resulted in the destruction of vegetation in the surrounding mountains can even be extended into a much vegetation but the affordable materials as there are media that carry the place. Vegetation would be difficult to grow again in the area until approximately 1 year to be the condition of the soil to grow new vegetation. Existing ecosystems will also be destroyed even the existing food chain will be interrupted which will impact on the extinction of the existing fauna. Water cleanliness may also be disrupted when the lava flowed through the rivers that surround the volcano.Secondary impacts occur as a consequence after the eruption occurred, such as climate change, changes in soil conditions, and also an increase in carbon dioxide that would change the climate, temperature and inhibit the growth of vegetation that will grow in areas affected by the eruption. Increased concentrations of atmospheric gases such as carbon dioxide from volcanic eruptions and have an impact on plants in the local area or even the whole world.

In this experiment there are three aspects that affect each other. The first is the physical aspect of the pressure. The second is the chemical reaction between acetic acid (CH3COOH) and sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) and get the highest bubbles in the crater because the CO2 gas produced. The next is the biological aspects of the ecosystem that includes the volcano itself. Although in this experiment using clay as a model berapai mountain, but the clay is formed into a volcano, it makes an ecosystem model of the volcano.

H. Conclusion
Pressures stemming from the injector pressure so that the vinegar acid gush out as if it looked like a volcano eruption.
The reaction is the reaction between acetic acid with sodium bicarbonate
NaHCO3 + CH3COOH → CO2 + H2O + CH3COONa (gas).
Affected area around the volcano lava coming out of the crater model volcano and cause damage volcano ecosystem it self.
At really volcano, eruption occurs because magma surfaced but depressed by solid surrounding rocks. When the magma to the surface, the magma that mixes with the gas spurt out and cause an eruption.

I. References
Abidin, H.Z.dkk. 2003. Ground Deformation Volcano Eruption Bandung: ITB PRESS
Dogra, SK. 1990. Kimia Fisika. Jakarta : UI-Press
Mogi, K.1958. Relation between the Eruption of Various Volcanoes.Tokyo: Tokyo Univ.
Sukardjo. 1997. Kimia Fisika. Jakarta : PT Rineka Cipta
Suminar Achmadi. 2004. Kimia Dasar : Prinsip dan Terapan Modern, Jilid 1. Jakarta : Erlangga
Accessed from http://www.pusakakimia.com. at Tuesday, October 18th 2011
Accessed from http:// keluargatinar.multiply.com. at Tuesday, October 18th 2011

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